All about Gems

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The 4cs 

Let’s explain the 4Cs of grading gemstones and the importance of you understanding how gems are valued. 

Coloured Stones ( Sapphires, Rubies, Emeralds etc) 

Colour is based on hue, tone, and saturation. The basic hues are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, and purple, all the natural colours of the rainbow.

A gems tone  refers to its lightness or darkness. Saturation refers to the intensity of its colour is it strong or soft, does the colour fade in parts of the stone. 

Diamond Colour Grades

Gemologists colour grade diamonds on how close they are to colourless. The top three grades are D to F which have very subtle differences in transparency . The next four grades (G to J ) are nearly colourless and often appear colourless when set in jewelry. K to M are ” very light” and finally S to Z are classed as having “light colour” normally seen as yellow. 

Colourless gems are scarcer which is reflected in their value, the very subtle colour variations will have significant impact on cost. 


Just like the tiny differences in colour will have on value the clarity is equally important. 

There are several grades ( Flawless to Included-3) . Inclusions are tiny natural imperfections that are often invisible to the naked eye and can often have no effect on the gems beauty, however the difference in value will be substantial. 


Refers to two things, how well the workmanship that went into fashioning the stone for example , is it symmetrical, are all the points where the facets meet crisp and sharp, are the proportions correct. It also refers to the final shape of the gem, Round, Pear, Oval, Cushion, Emerald, are just few of the most popular.

Carat not Carrots !  

Not to be confused with carrots, thats something completely different! 

One carat equals 1/5th of a gram or 200 milligrams. 

The increase in price per carat is due the fact larger gems are much less common than smaller ones. The value is exponential for example a 10 carat stone will be significant amout more than 10 one caret stones. 

Now you know all about the factors that go into grading and valuing you gem keep in mind:

– Be ready to compromise you might not be able to afford your first choice, not a lot of people can afford a 5 carat VVS1, D, diamond set in platinum. 

– Find a gem that suits you and your personality. 

– If that small inclusion can be hidden under a claw you could save a lot of money, Gem58 will do everything we can to help and advise you to find that gem that suits you and your budget. 

Most important consider the years of joy you’re going to get from your gem. 

Lab Created Gemstones 

These gemstones have the same physical ,optical, and chemical properties as mined gems. The best analogy is to think of making ice in a freezer rather than finding it in a lake. The ingredients are exactly the same, its water, you make ice in a freezer which is a man made controlled environment then most of the time it will be cleaner and more perfect than a piece of ice from the natural source which might have inclusions and imperfections.

Today you can find all sorts of Lab Created Gemstones in the market including Emerald, Ruby, and beautiful Sapphires. A top quality blue Sapphire can cost up to $10,000 to $50,000 a carat, however a top quality Lab Created Sapphire will cost a fraction of that and not many people can tell the difference.

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